*** NOTICE ***


The ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology
web site is no longer in operation.


The United States Department of Education continues to offer the


ERIC Database




All ERIC Clearinghouses plus AskERIC will be closed permanently as of December 31, 2003.


In January 2004, the Department of Education will implement a reengineering plan for ERIC. The new ERIC mission continues the core function of providing a centralized bibliographic database of journal articles and other published and unpublished education materials. It enhances the database by adding free full text and electronic links to commercial sources and by making it easy to use and up to date.


From January 2004 until the new ERIC model for acquiring education literature is developed later in 2004, no new materials will be received and accepted for the database. However, the ERIC database will continue to grow, as thousands of documents selected by the ERIC clearinghouses throughout 2003 will be added. When the new model is ready later in 2004, the new ERIC contractor will communicate with publishers, education organizations, and other database contributors to add publications and materials released from January 2004 forward.


Please use:

www.eric.ed.gov to


§         Search the ERIC database.

§         Search the ERIC Calendar of Education-Related Conferences.

§         Link to the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) to purchase ERIC full-text documents.

§         Link to the ERIC Processing and Reference Facility to purchase ERIC tapes and tools.

§         Stay up-to-date about the ERIC transition to a new contractor and model.

Archived version of the site:

ERIC Logo Clearinghouse on Information & Technology Department of Education Seal

White Spacer
ERIC System Website
Library and Information Science
Library Information Associations
Library Information Journals
Library Information Resources
Library Information Discussion Groups
Library Information Conferences
Educational Technology
Educational Technology Associations
Educational Technology Journals
Educational Technology Resources
Educational Technology Discussion Groups
Educational Technology Conferences
ERIC Database
Search ERIC Database
In-Process Abstracts for ERIC Database
Full Text ERIC/IT
Submit Documents to ERIC/IT
ERIC/IT Digests
Other Publications
Ordering Information
Discussion Groups
Library Information Discussion Groups
Educational Technology Discussion Groups
Find All Discussion Groups
Library Science Research
Educational Technology Research
Lesson Plans
Library Science Lesson Plans
Educational Technology Lesson Plans
#1Payday.Loans - US Cash Advances
7-day Payday Loans at 1PLs Co Website
3-month Payday Loans at 1PLs Co Website
White Spacer
White Spacer
White Spacer
White Spacer
White Spacer
Link Policy
White Spacer
White Spacer

Subscribe Today to receive New Book Announcements
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology publishes two to four books per year on topics in Educational Technology and Library/Information Science. These books provide you with the latest research and practice information on current, high-interest topics.
Blue diamonds
Survey of Instructional Development Models
Fourth Edition

Kent L. Gustafson and Robert Maribe Branch

This popular text, now in its fourth edition, provides readers with a solid understanding of the diversity and use of models used to portray the instructional development (ID) process, while reflecting the many changes in the field that have occurred since publication of the last edition in 1997.

Beginning with the belief that an ID model should be selected based on the specific context of the project, the authors present a classification schema for ID models that indicates whether a given model is best applied to developing individual classroom instruction, products for implementation by users other than the developers, or large and complex instructional systems directed at an organization’s problems or goals.

Gustafson and Branch offer a schema that will help guide the way in which instructional development models are adopted or adapted. The authors also present a brief history of ID models, explore numerous examples from each of the three categories in the schema, and discuss the latest trends in instructional development affecting the use of ID models.

Kent L. Gustafson is Professor Emeritus of Instructional Technology at the University of Georgia and Past President of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. He presents regularly at major educational conferences in America and in many countries around the world.

Robert Maribe Branch is Professor and Department Head of Instructional Technology at the University of Georgia. A former Fulbright Lecturer/Researcher, he currently serves as Senior Editor of the Educational Media and Technology Yearbook and consults regularly with businesses and government and educational institutions.

Order Today!

December 2002
71 pages (ISBN 0-937597-55-4)
Paper $20.00

Blue diamonds
Trends in Educational Technology
Fifth Edition

Donald P. Ely

Written by a leading authority in the field, this book provides an overview of current applications of technology in education. While emphasizing distributed learning systems, distance education, and wireless technology, the author also offers the latest information and statistics regarding the explosive growth of computer and Internet access and use at school and at home, increased advocacy for educational technology, new opportunities for professional development for teachers, new uses for television and video, and the role of technology in education reform. Readers will gain a deeper understanding of these forces, which are helping to shape the education of our nation, young and old, from the classroom to the living room.

This new edition of Trends in Educational Technology will be of interest to instructional designers, technology-based support staff, school library media specialists, teachers and teacher educators, as well as administrators in primary, secondary and higher education.

Donald P. Ely is Professor Emeritus, Department of Instructional Design, Development and Evaluation at Syracuse University’s School of Education and Founding Director of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology at Syracuse University. He is currently Visiting Professor, Instructional Systems Design, at Florida State University. He has written or edited numerous books over the course of his five decades in the field of educational technology, including Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, Classic Writings on Instructional Technology, The International Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, Second Edition, and the first four editions of this volume.

Order Today

November 2002
46 pages (ISBN 0-937597-54-6)
Paper $10.00

Blue diamonds
Statistics, Measures and Quality Standards for Assessing Digital Reference Library Services: Guidelines and Procedures Statistics, Measures and Quality Standards for Assessing Digital Reference Library Services: Guidelines and Procedures

Charles R. McClure
R. David Lankes
Melissa Gross
Beverly Choltco-Devlin

Many libraries are now providing digital reference service, either as an integrated component of their regular reference service, as a separate service, or as part of a collaborative consortium. In addition, many other libraries are thinking about implementing such services.

This manual is the beginning of an ongoing process to develop statistics, measures, and quality standards to assess and improve digital reference services. The measures included in the manual are based on literature reviews, input from advisory committee members, and were field-tested by a number of libraries participating in the project. Its overall purpose is to improve the quality of digital reference services and assist librarians to design and implement better digital reference services, which meet user information needs.

Order Today

September 2002
104 pages

Blue diamonds
EMTY 2002 Educational Media and Technology Yearbook
2002 Volume 27

Edited by Mary Ann Fitzgerald, Michael Orey, and Robert Maribe Branch

“In the year 2001, we noted several trends in the field, some new, and others continuing from recent years. The international surge toward online education or “e-learning” continues to gain momentum. Instructional technology projects and initiatives continue to emphasize the themes of collaboration and integration. The interdisciplinary nature of this field seems to be broadening, and the borders between instructional technology, information science, and educational media, and information technology are becoming increasingly blurred. Among K-12 and higher education leaders, tension between the standards reform movement and the constructivist philosophy remains, and the debate over this issue has many implications for our field. In broader contexts, experiential education seems to be gaining importance, and designers are applying emerging technologies to create learning environments that stimulate authentic situations. Finally, over the last few years we have witnessed a changing of the guard as many prominent leaders in the field of instructional technology have retired. These developments and trends are represented in the Yearbook in the form of research studies, descriptive reports, and conceptual pieces.”—From the Preface

Exploring current issues each year for more than a last quarter of a century, this annual volume helps media and technology professionals keep abreast of a changing and expanding field. With this 27th volume, readers will learn of the latest trends and issues, exciting projects unfolding at several research laboratories, issues of particular relevance to K-12 education, and the careers of some instructional technology leaders. And, as always, this volume provides directories of instructional technology-related organizations and institutes of higher learning offering degrees in related fields as well as an annotated list of selected current publications related to the field.

See Table of Contents

Published annually by Libraries Unlimited in cooperation with the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT).

Order Today from ERIC/IT or Libraries Unlimited

January 2002
416 pages (ISBN 1-56308-910-6)
Cloth $80.00 ($96.00 outside North America)

Blue diamonds
Facets of Digital Reference: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Virtual Reference Desk
October 16-17, 2000, Seattle, Washington

Edited by Abby S. Kasowitz and Joan Stahl

Available in FULL TEXT online at the Virtual Reference Desk’s Web site.

Learn of the most current issues in the field of digital reference and of the most promising developments for the future with Facets of Digital Reference. This free, online publication features work presented at an annual, international conference for library and information professionals on Internet-based reference service. This second conference of the Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) brought together some of the best and brightest professionals in digital reference--representing public, academic, and government libraries, as well as subject-specific AskA services—from around the United States and Canada and from far away as Australia, Denmark, and Japan. Now, from the comfort of your own home or office, you can read their work.

The dozens of papers and presentations included in Facets of Digital Reference explore key issues facing practitioners and researchers, such as the ability of services to grow exponentially in response to user demands; quality criteria for expert responses and evaluation methods; the proliferation of new commercial services and increased competition for libraries; and the use of new software technologies and tools to help automate and streamline Internet-based information exchanges. These proceedings offer a snapshot of current services, research initiatives, and products that help define the quickly growing field of digital reference.

The Virtual Reference Desk is a special project of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.

VRD’s third annual conference will be held November 12-13, 2001 in Orlando, Florida, contributing to the ongoing dialog on digital reference and to the efforts in the development of quality and technical standards.

Blue diamonds
Use of Human Intermediation in Information Problem Solving: The Users’ Perspective

By Makiko Miwa, PhD

This book will enhance your understanding of the information problem solving (IPS) behavior of users, particularly as it relates to human intermediation and the use of information retrieval (IR) systems. Using the AskERIC Q&A Service, an online digital reference service, as an example of human intermediation, the author explores why and in what situations people seek help from others in solving their information problems, making distinctions among different kinds of IPS tasks requested of human intermediaries. Filling a gap in the research literature, this book explores human intermediation from the users’ perspective rather than that of information professionals, taking into consideration more fully social and environmental situations related to users’ information problem solving processes. Use of Human Intermediation in Information Problem Solving offers researchers important situational variables for further study, while providing practitioners with information they need to improve services and IR systems design.

Table of Contents

$20.00, 314 pages
Order Today

Blue diamonds
Instructional Design Competencies: The Standards, 2001Instructional Design Competencies: The Standards, 2001
Third Edition

By Rita C. Richey, Dennis C. Fields, Marguerite Foxon
With Robert C. Roberts, Timothy Spannaus, and J. Michael Spector

“A succinct, timely, and relevant book that is a positive contribution to the continuing development of our field…The overall quality and utility of Instructional Design Competencies: The Standards is excellent, and we will certainly use it here at Florida State. We have moved from a traditional comprehensive exam based on a set of thematic papers to the development and presentation of competency-based portfolios by our students. We have found this to be extremely useful for our program development and for the students’ professional development…This book will help us in our efforts to strengthen our curriculum continuously, based on inputs such as these competencies and our own view of how the field is or should be developing. Without hesitation, I recommend this book be purchased and used by both individuals and organizations in the instructional design and related fields.”—John Keller, ETR&D

In 1986, the International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction (IBSTPI) published the first edition of Instructional Design Competencies: The Standards. It was the culmination of work that began in 1978. In retrospect, that work occurred in the infancy (or at least the toddler years) of the practice of instructional design (ID). In this volume IBSTPI presents its latest view of the competencies of instructional designers. It is a greatly expanded view that reflects the complexities of current practice and technology, theoretical advancements, and the social tenor of the times. Nonetheless, it is a view that is still rooted in the traditional notion of instructional design competence.
Table of Contents
Ordering Information

220 pp. (approx.) 6" x 9"; $20.00; IR-111. (ISBN: 0-937597-52-X)

Blue diamonds
Surviving Change Surviving Change: A Survey of Educational Change Models

By James B. Ellsworth

This monograph presents a theoretical road map for teachers, professors, or administrators who seek guidance from the educational change literature. This book brings together the research and practical applications in a practitioner's toolbox including the following:

  • A brief history of educational change models
  • Educational change frameworks
  • Examples from each change category
  • Trends in the theory and practice of change.
Explore these 10 aspects of change!
  • History of change
  • Strategies for change
  • Educational change models
  • Innovations
  • Change environment
  • Change agent
  • Change process
  • Intended adopter
  • Resistance to change
  • The System
Table of Contents
Ordering Information and Excerpt
250 pp. (approx.) 6" x 9"; $20.00; IR-109. (ISBN: 0-937597-50-3)
Blue diamonds
The Legacy of Robert M. Gagné The Legacy of Robert M. Gagné

by Rita C. Richey, Ed.

This historical overview reveals the influence of Gagné's learning theories in school and non-school settings. Gagné's research on the acquisition of knowledge led to a theory of learning hierarchies. His work then stimulated research on the learning of subject matter and design of curricula. This engaging book is divided into three main sections:

  • Gagné's ideas about human development, learning hierarchies, the learning process, mastery learning, and integrated goals and objectives.
  • The startling pervasiveness of Gagné's ideas, and
  • The future of Gagné's influence in the field of instructional technology.
Written by Gagné, his friends and co-workers, and edited by Rita C. Richey, this text emphasizes the legacy of Gagné in instructional design and provides readers a glimpse of the human side of this giant in the field.
Ordering Information
Table of Contents and Excerpt
250 pp. (approx.) 6" x 9"; $20.00 IR-108. (ISBN: 0-937597-49X)
Blue diamonds
Building and Maintaining Internet Information Services Building and Maintaining Internet Information Services: K-12 Digital Reference Services

by R. David Lankes

Go behind the scenes of today's exemplary digital reference services! This research report describes the foundations of digital reference; outlines how K-12 digital reference services build and maintain services in the changing Internet environment; and uses qualitative methods to look for similarities among several exemplary services:

  • AskA Volcanologist
  • Ask Dr. Math
  • Ask Shamu
  • AskERIC
  • How Things Work
  • Internet Public Library
  • MAD Scientist Network
  • National Museum of American Art Reference Desk
Lankes also discusses the early development of Internet technology; dynamic systems, complexity, and adaptive systems; and the role of K-12 digital reference in education today.

"A competent and innovative piece of research that provides a significant contribution to the field. A must read for researchers in digital reference."-Charles R. McClure, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University.
Table of Contents
Ordering Information
211 pp., 8.5"x11", $20.00 plus $3.00 shipping. IR-106. (ISBN: 0-937597-46-5)

Blue diamonds
Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age

by Kathleen L. Spitzer with Michael B. Eisenberg and Carrie A. Lowe

This monograph traces the history and development of the term information literacy, examines the economic necessity of being information literate, and explores the research related to the concept. The book reports on the National Educational Goals (1991), the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) Report (1991), and includes updates from the American Library Association's (ALA) Information Power (1998).

The authors examine recent revisions in national subject matter standards that imply a recognition of the process skills included in information literacy and outline the impact of information literacy on K-12 and higher education. Finally, the book provides examples of information literacy in various contexts.

An extensive ERIC bibliography is appended.
Table of Contents
Ordering Information
150 pp. approx., 6" x 9"; $20.00 + $3.00 shipping. IR-104. (ISBN: 0-937597-44-9)

Blue diamonds
Linking People to the Global Networked Society Linking People to the Global Networked Society: Public Access to the Internet Through Public Libraries

by Charles R. McClure and John Bertot

This report provides an evaluation of the successful OnLine at PA Libraries project. The goals of the projects were to:

  • Provide public access to the Internet through Pennsylvania's public libraries
  • Provide library users with timely information for educational, research, economic development, and recreational purposes.
  • Ensure that trained library staff are available to help the public find the information they need in an online environment.
The report documents that these goals were, in fact, accomplished. Moreover, the report identifies many additional impacts and benefits that resulted from the project.
Table of Contents
Ordering Information
109 pp., 8.5"x11", IR-105; $20.00 plus $3.00 shipping. (ISBN: 0-937597-45-7)
Blue diamonds

| Home | About | About ERIC/IT | ERIC | Library & Information Science |
| Library/Info Science Associations | Library/Info Science Journals | Library/Info Science Resources |
| Library/Info Science Discussion Groups | Library/Info Science Conferences | Educational Technology |
| Ed Tech Associations | Ed Tech Journals | Ed Tech Resources | Ed Tech Discussion Groups |
| Ed Tech Conferences | ERIC Database | Search ERIC | Search In-Process Abstracts |
| Search Full Text ERIC/IT Documents | Submit Documents | Publications | Books | ERIC Digests |
| Other Publications | Ordering Information | Discussion Groups | Find Discussion Group | Research |
| Library/Info Science Research | Ed Tech Research | Lesson Plans | Library/Info Science Lesson Plans |
| Ed Tech Lesson Plans | Projects | Sitemap | Site Search |
| Feedback | Sponsors | Privacy | Link Policy | Disclaimer |