*** NOTICE ***


The ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology
web site is no longer in operation.


The United States Department of Education continues to offer the


ERIC Database




All ERIC Clearinghouses plus AskERIC will be closed permanently as of December 31, 2003.


In January 2004, the Department of Education will implement a reengineering plan for ERIC. The new ERIC mission continues the core function of providing a centralized bibliographic database of journal articles and other published and unpublished education materials. It enhances the database by adding free full text and electronic links to commercial sources and by making it easy to use and up to date.


From January 2004 until the new ERIC model for acquiring education literature is developed later in 2004, no new materials will be received and accepted for the database. However, the ERIC database will continue to grow, as thousands of documents selected by the ERIC clearinghouses throughout 2003 will be added. When the new model is ready later in 2004, the new ERIC contractor will communicate with publishers, education organizations, and other database contributors to add publications and materials released from January 2004 forward.


Please use:

www.eric.ed.gov to


§         Search the ERIC database.

§         Search the ERIC Calendar of Education-Related Conferences.

§         Link to the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) to purchase ERIC full-text documents.

§         Link to the ERIC Processing and Reference Facility to purchase ERIC tapes and tools.

§         Stay up-to-date about the ERIC transition to a new contractor and model.

Archived version of the site:

ERIC Logo Clearinghouse on Information & Technology Department of Education Seal

White Spacer
ERIC System Website
Library and Information Science
Library Information Associations
Library Information Journals
Library Information Resources
Library Information Discussion Groups
Library Information Conferences
Educational Technology
Educational Technology Associations
Educational Technology Journals
Educational Technology Resources
Educational Technology Discussion Groups
Educational Technology Conferences
ERIC Database
Search ERIC Database
In-Process Abstracts for ERIC Database
Full Text ERIC/IT
Submit Documents to ERIC/IT
ERIC/IT Digests
Other Publications
Ordering Information
Discussion Groups
Library Information Discussion Groups
Educational Technology Discussion Groups
Find All Discussion Groups
Library Science Research
Educational Technology Research
Lesson Plans
Library Science Lesson Plans
Educational Technology Lesson Plans
N.M.P.L. - List of U.S. lenders
N.M.P.L. - List of lenders in Los Angeles
N.M.P.L. - List of lenders in San Diego
N.M.P.L. - List of lenders in Columbus Ohio
White Spacer
White Spacer
White Spacer
White Spacer
White Spacer
Link Policy
White Spacer
White Spacer


September 2000

A Survey of Educational Change Models

James B. Ellsworth

(This Digest is based on Surviving Change: A Survey of Educational Change Models by James B. Ellsworth)

Change isn't new, and neither is its study. We have a rich set of frameworks, solidly grounded in empirical studies and practical applications. Most contributions may be classified under a set of major perspectives, or "models" of change. These perspectives are prevalent in the research, and combine to yield a 360 degree view of the change process. In each case, one author or group of authors is selected as the epitome of that perspective. A small group of studies from disciplines outside educational change (in some cases outside education) also contribute to key concepts not found elsewhere in the literature.

Everett Rogers, one of the "elder statesmen" of change research, notes that change is a specialized instance of the general communication model (Rogers, 1995, pp. 5-6). Ellsworth expands on this notion to create a framework that organizes these perspectives to make the literature more accessible to the practitioner.

The change framework might be summarized as follows: a change agent wishes to communicate an innovation to an intended adopter. This is accomplished using a change process, which establishes a channel through the change environment. However, this environment also contains resistance that can disrupt the change process or distort how the innovation appears to the intended adopter. By uniting these tactics in a systemic strategy, we improve our chances of effective, lasting change.

Putting it All Together

Change efforts should employ a systemic understanding of the context in which we undertake them. Nevertheless, depending on the circumstance, or as the implementation effort progresses, it may be most effective to focus interventions on a particular component of the framework at a time.

Anyone trying to improve schools (teachers, principals, students, district administrators, consultants, parents, community leaders, or government representatives) may look to The New Meaning of Educational Change (Fullan & Stiegelbauer, 1991) to decide where to start (or to stop an inappropriate change).

From there, Systemic Change in Education (Reigeluth & Garfinkle, 1994), considers the system being changed, and assumptions about the nature of that system (its purpose, members, how it works, its governing constraints and so forth). Question those assumptions, to see whether they still hold true. Look inside the system to understand its subsystems or stakeholders and how they relate to one another and to the system as a whole. Look outside the system too, to know how other systems (like business or higher education) are interrelated with it, and how it (and these other systems) in turn relate to the larger systems of community, nation, or human society. The new understanding may illuminate current goals for the proposed innovation, (or concerns for the change you are resisting) and may indicate some specific emerging issues.

This understanding is crucial for diagnosing the system's needs, and how an innovation serves or impedes them. The Change Agent's Guide (Havelock & Zlotolow, 1995) helps to guide and plan future efforts. The Guide serves as a checklist to ensure that the right resources are acquired at the proper time. The Guide also helps to conduct and assess a trial of the innovation in a way that is relevant and understandable to stakeholders. It extends implementation both in and around the systemŠand helps to prepare others within the system to recognize when it is time to change again.

At some point one must commit to a plan, and act. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model [CBAM] (Hall & Hord, 1987) provides tools to "keep a finger on the pulse" of change and to collect the information needed. This model's guidelines help readers to understand the different concerns stakeholders experience as change progresses. This will help readers to design and enact interventions when they will be most effective.

Even the most effective change effort usually encounters some resistance. Strategies for Planned Change (Zaltman & Duncan, 1977) can help narrow down the cause(s) of resistance. Perhaps some stakeholders see the innovation as eroding their status. Possibly others would like to adopt the innovation, but lack the knowledge or skills to do so. Opposition may come from entrenched values and beliefs, or from lack of confidence that the system is capable of successful change.

One way to approach such obstacles is to modify or adapt the innovation's attributes. Even if the actual innovation cannot be altered, it may be possible to change the perceptions of the innovation among stakeholders. For example, instead of competing with them, perhaps it is more appropriately seen as a tool that will help others achieve appropriate goals. Whether one modifies the attributes or merely their perceptions, Diffusion of Innovations (Rogers, 1995) identifies the ones that are generally most influential, and will help readers select an approach.

Other obstacles may arise from the environment in which change is implemented. The "Conditions for Change" (Ely, 1990) can help you address those deficiencies. Possibly a clearer statement of commitment by top leaders (or more evident leadership by example) is needed. Or maybe more opportunity for professional development is required, to help the stakeholders learn how to use their new tool(s).

Change models are frequently interrelated. For example, when modifying innovation attributes pursuant to Rogers (1995), one might make a component checklist (see Hall & Hord, 1987) to avoid accidental elimination of a critical part of the innovation. When assessing the presence or absence of the conditions for change (Ely, 1990), verify that the systemic conditions mentioned in Reigeluth and Garfinkle (1994) are present as well. While using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall & Hord, 1987) to design interventions aimed at stakeholders at a particular level of use or stage of concern, consider the psychological barriers to change presented by Zaltman and Duncan (1977).

Reaching Out, Reaching Across

Much useful knowledge of the change process comes from other fields as well-particularly the business-inspired domains of Human Performance Technology (HPT) and Human Resource Development (HRD). Include these other knowledge bases as an involvement with educational change grows.

Reach out to other disciplines to share experiences and to benefit from theirs. Reach across to other stakeholders, to build the sense of community and shared purpose necessary for the changes that must lie ahead. The road won't always be easy and everyone won't always agree which path to take when the road forksŠbut with mutual respect, honest work, and the understanding that we all have to live with the results, we can get where we need to go.

Succeeding Systematically

The lessons of the classical change models are as valid today-and just as essential for the change agent to master-as they have ever been. Yet a single innovation (like a new technology or teaching philosophy) that is foreign to the rest of the system may be rejected, like an incompatible organ transplant is rejected by a living system. Success depends on a coordinated "bundle" of innovations-generally affecting several groups of stakeholders-that results in a coherent system after implementation.

These are exciting times to be a part of education. They are not without conflictŠbut conflict is what we make of it. Its Chinese ideogram contains two characters: one is "danger" and the other "hidden opportunity." We choose which aspect of conflict-and of change-we emphasize.


Craig, R. (1996). The ASTD training and development handbook: A guide to human resource development. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ellsworth, J.B. (2000). Surviving change: A survey of educational change models. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. (ED number pending, IR020063)

Ely, D. (1990). Conditions that facilitate the implementation of educational technology innovations. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 23(2), 298-305. (EJ 421 756)

Fullan, M., & Stiegelbauer, S. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. (ED 354 588)

Hall, G., & Hord, S. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. (ED 332 261)

Havelock, R., & Zlotolow, S. (1995). The change agent's guide, (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. (ED 381 886)

Reigeluth, C., & Garfinkle, R. (1994). Systemic change in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. (ED 367 055)

Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Free Press.

Stolovitch, H., & Keeps, E. (1999). Handbook of human performance technology: A comprehensive guide for analyzing and solving performance problems in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Zaltman, G., & Duncan, R. (1977). Strategies for planned change. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

This ERIC Digest was prepared by James B. Ellsworth, Ph.D., Professor of Online Education, College of Continuing Education, U.S. Naval War College (ellswor@nwc.navy.mil)

ERIC Digests are in the public domain and may be freely reproduced and disseminated.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology; Syracuse University, 621 Skytop Road, Suite 160; Syracuse, New York 13244-5290; (315) 443-3640; (800) 464-9107; Fax: (315) 443-5448; E-mail: eric@ericir.syr.edu; URL: http://ericir.syr.edu/ithome

This publication is funded in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education under contract number ED-99-CO-0005. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government. The Department of Education's web address is: http://www.ed.gov/